Research Integrity




Hello there, thanks for checking my 3rd blog. In my 2nd Blog I covered Ethic in e-commerce, while in this blog I’ll talk about research integrity.  Many ethical issues can occur while writing, and plagiarism is a very common one especially between students. See Fig.1

Fig.1 Increase in plagiarism in the past 10 year.


(NBC NEWS, 2011)

Whenever you are writing, you need to refer to somebody’s research, charts or ideas. Reading from many sources can highly support your argument. Also using books, articles, journals or even videos while researching for your writing will help you collect a good range of ideas so that you can expand. References shows that you did not rely ONLY in your opinion.

Go and “Stand on the shoulders of giants”


 What happens when you use another’s work without referencing?

You simply “PLAGIARIZE” which can lead to failing the course you are doing. (Clabaugh & Rozycki, 2001)


(tulsaccprof, 2012)

Well, there’s good news: you can use other people’s ideas and avoid accusations of plagiarism. Keep reading so you know how to manage plagiarism.

Ready? Let’s start.

Here are two ways to use sources without plagiarizing: (Webley, 2013)

Quoting is when you copy someone’s saying exactly the same and add it into your own work by the use of “”. It is good to quote when the author’s way of explaining is effective.

The issue with quoting is that Students tend to quote anything and everything just to avoid going under the word limit, without knowing if the quote really supports the concept.  Consequently, having many quotations will mostly ruin the writing’s flow as they will end up with many writing styles.

The main idea of quoting is to be able to express your opinion better and to show that you fully understood the literatures you read. While having too many quotes will enable you from proving that as you cannot decide which quote is a well evidence.

Also, quoting can stop you from writing creatively. Being creative is a valued skill that adds strength to your abilities.  (Strongman, 2013)


(Dartmouth College, 2016)


Paraphrasing means writing what you read using your own words and style. You can paraphrase by changing the structure of the sentence, changing voices or using synonyms. (Turville, 2015). Paraphrasing helps control over-quoting.

But what’s the problem with this approach? Some people tend to only change few words just for the sake of reducing similarities so no one would know it is copied. Without really understanding the issue or argument. For example, when a student is writing an essay and he’s not interested in the topic, he will probably start plagiarizing. He finds the topic too boring to read about. As a result to avoid plagiarizing he willcopy the exact same phrase with a little bit of changing which will affect the level of understanding the topic. This student will not be able to increase his knowledge, consequently to solve the problems, and make any decision regarding his essay.

At the same time, when students paraphrase or quote after reading and researching well, they are going to get diffrent idea’s and point of views which enables  them to solve problems, and make evaluations.

Is Technology helping people to plagiarize?

Playing around with technology in order not to get caught plagiarizing is such a bad habit that almost everyone does nowadays. By using applications that check originality and plagiarism percentages.


Who is responsible for the increase in College plagiarism?

Computers and Internet are two useful tools that no one can live without, but for some student technology has LIMITED their creativity. Internet makes it very easy for students to get any piece of information by only one click, it’s more often to Internet plagiarize. (Eret & Ok, 2014)


How to reduce the rate of students who plagiarize: (Insley, 2011)

  • Understanding what plagiarism really is. 
  • Training and practicing. So it won’t be time consuming.


Last but not least, Searching is different from researching students need to REASEARCH then quote or rephrase what they think is useful, in order to get the best results. Finally, do not forget when you either quote or paraphrase you should In-text cite and have a reference List.  Make sure you share you opinion publically in the comment section please or privately by Email. See you later!

























Clabaugh, G., & Rozycki, E. (2001). The plagiarism book (p. vii). Oreland: NewFoundationsPress.

Dartmouth College,. (2016). In the Native American Studies Research Library in Sherman House. Retrieved from

Eret, E., & Ok, A. (2014). Internet plagiarism in higher education: tendencies, triggering factors and reasons among teacher candidates. Assessment & Evaluation In Higher Education39(8), 1002-1016.

Insley, R. (2011). Managing Plagiarism: A Preventative Approach. Business Communication Quarterly74(2), 183-187.

NBC NEWS, S. (2011). increase in plagiarism in the past 10 years.. Retrieved from

Strongman, L. (2013). Academic writing (p. 119). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

tulsaccprof,. (2012). What is Plagiarism?. Retrieved from

Turville, N. (2015). How to avoid Retrieved 15 March 2016, from

Webley, L. (2013). Legal writing (3rd ed., p. 116). London: Cavendish.

Ethics in E-commerce

Hello everyone and thanks for reading my second blog. In my first post I covered what Enterprise 2.0 is and how it effects organisations and businesses. In this post, I will point out managing digital enterprise, and how to put ethics in E-commerce.

Most of us tried online shopping but have you ever bought something and it was not as good as it seemed on the website? This situation could possibly damage the trust the buyer has towards the shopping market. Which in fact is one reason why Ethics are very important.


(Source: Fincher, 2016)

So what is E-commerce? “E-commerce is an electronic transaction which is the sale of purchase of goods or services between businesses, house hold, individuals, government and other public or private organizations, conducted over computer mediated networks.” (Qin et al., n.d., 2014). A survey of 2,257 adults in the UK have been published shows that 45% of buying decisions are influenced by ethical standards. (Department for Business, Innovation & Skills. 2014). See Fig.1


Fig.1 Survey into UK attitudes to ethical standards in retail and their impact on the public’s buying decisions. (2014)



(Source:, 2014)


Alright, let’s find out How to increase online trading efficiency and get consumers to trust you?

There are some strategies you can use to create ethics in E-commerce:

1- Encourage Honesty 

In your business website you should keep honest to get people to trust you. User reviews is an essential feature in online trading websites, positive and negative reviews should be accepted. Online shopping websites tend to have fake reviews and fake orders to attract customers which is not an effective approach, because, eventually, once the buyer knows he will no longer trust. See Fig.2


Figure 2 (Customers reviews on


 (Source:, 2016)

Also, advertisers sometimes go way too far when promoting for an item which leads to lies on the product features. You do not want to exaggerate and end up giving wrong information about your product or service cause then the buyer will get disappointed.


2- Do not be annoying.  

Businesses should keep in touch with their customers to engage them and attract them more to the brand either by social media, E-mail, phone calls or text messages. However, not to the point where it becomes spamming. There are many examples of bad spamming such as, spam comments, spam massages on face book, and last but not least spamming Emails (when using E- mail to advertise and promote). Although it is the most used marketing tool for many businesses and in fact is a very effective way to connect with customers it can easily become a spamming tool.  Spamming is one of the worst ways that could kill business. Anti-spam Law would be a good solution.


3- Protect customer’s privacy and security.

Watch this video to have a clear idea of Security in e-commerce

Nikil. (2013). E-Commerce Security video.

Last but not least, online businesses need to let their customers know about their values, security and safety. Satisfied buyers will come back again and again, they will also tell their friends about their experience which will make the business more popular.  Do you have any more tips for online traders? Please share them in the comments sections below. Finally, if you want to read more about Ethics in E-commerce have a look at this book from here.


Amazon, (2016). Customers reviews. [image] Available at: [Accessed 1 Mar. 2016].
Department for Business, Innovation & Skills. (2014). Public views on ethical retail. Available: Last accessed 1st March 2016.
Fincher, N. (2016). E-commerce ways. [image] Available at: [Accessed 2 Mar. 2016]., (2014). Survey. [image] Available at: Last accessed 1st March 2016. [Accessed 29 Feb. 2016].
Prof. Zheng Qin, Dr. Yang Chang, Prof. Shundong Li, Dr. Fengxiang Li (2014). E-Commerce Strategy. Zhejiang University Press: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Actual effects of Enterprise 2.0 on your business.

Hello everyone, and thanks for being here!


The world is being increasingly effected by globalization which changes everything related to business, technology, and even food! All organizations have their own software which is used to fulfil the company’s needs and to help them achieve their goals easily. Traditional applications and software are improving day by day to develop the enterprise’s productivity and efficiency. For example, enterprise 1.0.

Enterprise 1.0 has been used by businesses for a long time, but the problem with it that it’s hard for people to know or use the information they want. They can’t easily get access to data. If you have ever used the old website of Amazon, you will know they used not to have the reviews sections, not even the ratings one. But now the improved version has many changes. If you are a business owner, or you work in the IT department in a company you should keep on reading to have a more successful path.

Do you know what has changed the way the world does business?

It is “Enterprise 2.0”.

Enterprise 2.0 is a technology that enables collaboration in business. In another words, companies use online social software platforms and tools such as blogs, social networking, and wikis… to connect with their partners or customers (Joe Lennon, 2009) 

Professor Andrew McAfee has first introduced the concept of Enterprise 2.0 in 2006. He also published his book “Enterprise 2.0: New Collaborative Tools for Your Organization’s Toughest Challenges” In the fall of 2009 by Harvard business publishing. Which you can buy from here

Many successful software companies have adopted Enterprise 2.0. Such as Apple®, IBM®, Oracle® and SAP®. This application is the next generation of enterprise content management (ECM) and you will know why if you continue reading.

Some of the techniques that can be applied:

  • User rating and commenting

Apples’ online store allows customers to post reviews and product ratings. This technique has built customers trust as users look at the page, it helps them evaluate how good the products are based on others’ tries. On the other hand, this method acted as a survey Apple’s developers use to improve the products because knowing user preferences plays a major part in enhancing products.  (See Figure 1)

Figure 1 (screen printed from Apples’ website) 

apple 2

  • Blogs

Blogs are beneficial in answering customers, and employees’ questions. It is also a very good marketing method. Dell have a really great blogs where they respond to customers, and post interesting content daily so people would always visit to discuss, ask and learn more. Click here to visit.  (See figure 2)

Figure 2 (an article from Dell’s blog) 

 del 3

  • Tagging forms

Allowing users to categories created, or viewed by them through free tags has effected the way documents and site content is managed. It became much easier for the document to be found by searching for the tag in a later date.


Now, imagine that you have a business. How enterprise 2.0 would benefit and improve your organization?

  • Communication and Accessibility

Enterprise allows accessing updated information anywhere, anytime. No more worries about data availability. An employee can easily access through internet or 3G network to get instant information even if he was queuing in Starbucks!

  • Cost effectiveness

Enterprise 2.0 saves time and money as its set up is easy to user and many of the service are free of charge. The paid services are considered convenient prices compared to sillier services in the market.

However, there is always disadvantages. What are the potential issues with Enterprise 2.0?

  • Security

As online crime is a growing business, Enterprise 2.0 is potential for hackers, fishers to attack. If threats such as information leakage hit the company, the hacker can steal critical information like new product design. In fact, if the company lost such confidential information, a huge damage would occur impacting company’s money and reputation.

Can you think of more negative effects?

I believe IT departments should manage social technologies right to transform the company. New technologies and applications are not just for individuals to socialize but can also help businesses to solve problems. Implementing Enterprise 2.0 system helps employees to connect, share ideas and learn more efficiently.

Now watch this video about Enterprise 2.0 and Social Business to know how new collaborative tools let everyone create and organize information.

Please feel free to comment, and share your ideas with me. If you like my blog please subscribe, and share my blog to your friends and family. See you soon friends.




Andrew McAfee, (2006). Enterprise 2.0, version 2.0. [online] Available at: [Accessed 16 Feb. 2016].

Lennon, J. (2009). Implementing Enterprise 2.0. [online] IBM. Available at: [Accessed 15 Feb. 2016].